Author Archive

MARCIVE Enhances Catalog of U.S. Government Publications

Written by Joan on April 26, 2022. Posted in Blog

Recent Updates to Records in the CGP

In March 2022, Library Services and Content Management’s (LSCM’s) new authority control contractor, MARCIVE, updated and enhanced most of the bibliographic records in the Catalog of U.S. Government Publications (CGP).

All of the following Library of Congress Subject Headings have been replaced as follows:

  • Aliens > Noncitizens
  • Illegal aliens > Noncitizens + Illegal immigration
  • Children of illegal aliens > Children of noncitizens + Illegal immigration
  • Illegal alien children > Noncitizen children + Illegal immigration
  • Women illegal aliens > Women noncitizens + Illegal immigration
  • Alien detention centers > Noncitizen detention centers

Other enhancements:

  • 76,666 bib records have had Library of Congress (LC) classification numbers added
  • Addition of content/media/carrier fields (336/337/338)
  • Addition of some Genre/Form terms
  • Spelling out of abbreviations

In addition, over 4 million subfield $0 Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) have been added to access points. Identifiers, and specifically URIs, are a prerequisite for linked data models such as BIBFRAME. These URIs display only in the MARC view (or format) in the CGP. Records included in the Cataloging Record Distribution Program (CRDP) will currently be made available without the subfield $0 URIs, but the option for CRDP participating libraries to select these records with the subfields is being investigated for next fiscal year.

Example records CGP: 001151392 ; 000297717

FDLP News & Events is a service of the Federal Depository Library Program.

Illegal Aliens : Part 2

Written by Joan on February 17, 2022. Posted in Blog

February 17, 2022

Change in our processing for the Illegal aliens subject heading

In November 2021, the Library of Congress replaced the heading Illegal aliens with two headings: Noncitizens and Illegal immigration.  The headings Women illegal aliensChildren of illegal aliens, and Illegal alien children were replaced in the same way.  While this was an action many in the library community had eagerly anticipated, this change has created discrepancies between the resulting split headings and the original heading subdivisions.

Fixing a fix

Illegal aliens (a “class of persons” subject heading) now gets split into Noncitizens (class of persons) and Illegal immigration (topical subject heading).  Any original subdivisions remain with the split headings. For Noncitizens, that’s fine!   Any subdivision appropriate for classes of persons is still valid when added to Noncitizens, as Noncitizens is a class of persons.

It’s possible, however, that Illegal immigration could be paired with subdivisions only valid for classes of persons. This is also possible when splitting Children of illegal aliens, Illegal alien children, and Women illegal aliens.

So these incoming headings:

Illegal aliens $x Employment $z United States.
Illegal alien children $x Medical care $z United States.
Women illegal aliens $x Abuse of $x Prevention.

Would have become these headings:

Noncitizens $x Employment $z United States.
Noncitizen children $x Medical care $z United States.
Women noncitizens $x Abuse of $x Prevention.
Illegal immigration $x Employment $z United States.
Illegal immigration $x Medical care $z United States.
Illegal immigration $x Abuse of $x Prevention.

The subdivisions Employment, Medical care, and Abuse of can be used under classes of persons, but not under topical headings like Illegal immigration.  To prevent incorrect heading construction, our processing will remove the entire heading and not just the invalid subdivision when Illegal immigration is paired with an invalid subdivision.  This will be our standard processing for replacing these specific split terms. 

So now a bib record with these incoming headings:

Illegal aliens $x Employment $z United States.
Illegal alien children $x Medical care $z United States.
Women illegal aliens $x Abuse of $x Prevention.

 Will only get only these split headings:

Noncitizens $x Employment $z United States.
Noncitizen children $x Medical care $z United States.
Women noncitizens $x Abuse of $x Prevention.

Lists… always lists

We have a list of the subdivisions that are only for people, and are therefore invalid with Illegal immigration.  Now our processing looks at the split term and determines if the subdivision is appropriate for use under topical headings.

If the incoming split term has subdivisions appropriate for use under topical headings, the heading Illegal immigration will be created with these subdivisions.

Not a destination, but a journey

The use of access points in library catalogs that are meaningful, inclusive and relevant to your specific community in this point in time is an ever-evolving process.  Current terminology to describe resources is increasingly important, as the vast amount of metadata continues to grow at a rapid pace.  This makes the use of authority control even more important than ever.  Is your library keeping pace?

If you have questions about problematic access points in your catalog, contact us at [email protected] or at 800-531-7678.  We are here to help!

Written by Candy Riley, MLIS, Manager of Metadata Services and Joan Chapa, MLS, Director of Marketing and Sales.

 

Changes to Illegal aliens and other subject headings

Written by Joan on December 6, 2021. Posted in Blog

December 6, 2021

What’s in a name?  Or even a specific term?  Actually, a lot.  Over the last several years, there has been growing concern about problematic or insensitive terms in library cataloging.  Updating subject headings is an important step in library diversity, equity and inclusion efforts.

Libraries have implemented in-house or outsourced solutions to ensure that library collections are inclusive and welcoming of the patrons they serve.  One of the way we can help libraries is the use of substitute language as provided by the library.  See how we helped Kansas City Public Library with their specific needs.

On November 12, 2021 the Library of Congress replaced the heading Illegal aliens with two headings: Noncitizens and Illegal immigration.  Other similar headings that were changed at this time include: Women illegal aliens, Children of illegal aliens, and Illegal alien children.

What does this mean for libraries that are getting MARCIVE services?

Customers getting Comprehensive Notification Service will receive BOTH the updated authority records and the updated bib records as soon as we process their next scheduled update.  If that is not soon enough for the library and they get Overnight Authorities service from us they can send in bib records with these headings and we will return the updated bib records at the library’s current per record pricing.

How MARCIVE will change these bib headings depends on what option the library has chosen in their Authority Control Profile regarding split subject term processing.

From our profile:

Standard processing replaces a single access point with all matches to the formerly authorized terms.

  • If you prefer to leave split subject terms unchanged, check this option

When LC splits one term into two or more authorized terms, our standard processing replaces the single former term with the two or more authorized terms as directed by the LC authority records.  The library can choose to leave split subject terms unchanged, however, in which case the incoming former term will not be changed by MARCIVE.

Here are examples of bib heading changes customers can expect via Comprehensive Notification or Overnight Authorities services with standard processing options:

Incoming heading:                           650  _0 $­a Illegal aliens.

Outgoing headings:                         650  _0 $a Noncitizens.
650  _0 $a Illegal immigration.

Incoming heading:                           650  _0 $­a Women illegal aliens.

Outgoing headings:                         650  _0 $a Women noncitizens.
650  _0 $a Illegal immigration.

Incoming heading:                           650  _0 $­a Children of illegal aliens.

Outgoing headings:                          650  _0 $a Children of noncitizens.
650  _0 $a Illegal immigration.

Incoming heading:                           650  _0 $­a Illegal alien children.

Outgoing headings:                         650  _0 $a Noncitizen children.
650  _0 $a Illegal immigration.

Checking the profile option to leave split subject terms unchanged causes the term “Illegal aliens” would remain as is.  Probably not the desired result!

From time to time, we have had the request to substitute such problematic terms with the ones supplied by the library in a spreadsheet, and we are happy to do so.  But we do not delete the LC terms in question. In general, it is usually a bad idea to remove access points.   In the case of “Illegal aliens”, if that heading were deleted a term that isn’t there cannot be flipped!  It is very possible that LC will update other such terms, so deleting them completely from a bib record will not facilitate what an authority record is supposed to do—change outdated terms to current, relevant ones.

Customers who have removed these LC terms completely from their bib records or moved these terms to a different tag will not be able to get the updated headings via Comprehensive Notification or Overnight Authorities services.  It will be up to the library whether to change the local terms they are using in-house and to do this work themselves.

Talk to us about ways we can make your collections more inclusive to your users.  We are here to help!

Written by Joan Chapa, Director of Marketing & Sales, and Candy Riley, Manager of Metadata Services

Help your Spanish Speakers Find Materials in your Catalog

Written by Joan on April 12, 2021. Posted in General

April 12, 2021

MARCIVE has added new processing where we verify access points in the Spanish Language in your bibliographic records.  Having the language in your database can make your catalog discoverable by keyword search to your Spanish-speaking patrons.  The Queens Borough Public Library (QLSP) created these Spanish headings as a project in 2008, and has made them publicly available for some time.  The headings are static and are not being updated, however MARCIVE can validate theses QLSP headings in your records at no extra charge to our authorities processing customers.  Contact [email protected] for further information.

Examples: ____________________________________________________________________________

Incoming bib record:               650 _7 $a Habitantes de apartamentos $2 qlsp

Verified by MARCIVE as:         650 _7 $a Habitantes de apartamentos $2 qlsp

Incoming bib record:               655 _7 $a Materiales en español $2 qlsp

Verified by MARCIVE as:         655 _7 $a Materiales en español $2 qlsp

New URI Enrichment Option

Written by Joan on January 15, 2021. Posted in Blog

January 15, 2021

With the focus on linked data, libraries now request that we provide the information when a bib term is matched to an appropriate authority record. We can insert the control number of the authority record or the URI of the authority record into subfield $0 of the bib record (recommended).

Example of control number in subfield $0 of a bib record:

650_0 $a Drawing. $0 (DLC) sh 85039408

If this option is chosen, subfield $0 control numbers will be added for the following vocabularies: AAT, ACP, FAST, GSAFD, LAC, LCSH, LCGFT, MeSH, NASA, NLA, Sears, TGM.

Example of a URI in subfield $0 of a bib record:

100 1 $a Kelly, Katy, $0 http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n88121754 $e author.

If this option is chosen, subfield $0 URIs will be added for the following vocabularies: ACP, FAST, LCSH, LCGFT, MeSH, TGM.

There’s been some documentation from PCC declaring a preference for using URIs that represent full matching access points and not partial access points as we provide.

October 2017    PCC Task Group on URIs in MARC Year 2 Report to PoCo (October 2017) (page 5)
“After careful consideration, the Task Group recommends against providing URIs that represent only partial entities of a MARC field. Faceted vocabularies provide an alternative means to represent such concepts by post-coordination. If the entire concept is to be represented as a single semantic unit within the LCSH vocabulary, in our view that becomes an issue for the maintenance agency rather than for implementers.”
https://www.loc.gov/aba/pcc/bibframe/TaskGroups/PCC_URI_TG_20171015_Report.pdf

This recommendation was repeated in a 2019 report (quoted from the 2017 report above): 09/12/19   PCC Task Group on Linked Data Best Practices Final Report (page 9)
https://www.loc.gov/aba/pcc/taskgroup/linked-data-best-practices-final-report.pdf

To date, we have not seen anything from the Library of Congress regarding community-wide adoption of these recommendations and it may be up to the library to choose to follow them or not. In response to customer inquiry, we will now insert subfield $0 when either a full or partial access point matches an authority record, or only when a full access point matches an authority record.

Which option is best? It really is up to the library.  If a library want to follow PCC stated best practices, they should get $0 URIs for full matching access points only.  However, this will result in a lot fewer added $0 subfields in their bib records and this additional information may be missed.  Unless the library is experimenting with Bibframe and the Sinopia linked-data editing environment, we suggest that the option to get $0 subfields for full and partial matches be chosen.  Since this is an ever-evolving area, this is likely not the last URI recommendation we will see from PCC.  It may well be that partial match URIs are acceptable in the future.

It should be noted that the choices a library makes for adding $0 subfields do not affect which authority records are returned to the library, as these are an entirely separate processes in Authority Match.  Our authorities processing provides authority records to the library for the fullest matching string.  If the library chooses to add $0 subfields for full matches only, they will still receive authority records for full and some partial matches.  For example, there is no authority record match for this full string so a URI will not be added if the library chooses to add them for full access points only:

650_0 $a Automobiles $x Air conditioning $z Arizona.

However, the library does get two matching authority records for this string:

$a Automobiles $x Air conditioning                          sh 85010204

$z Arizona                                                                       n  79034873

Here’s another example:

650_0 $a Personality disorders $x Religious aspects $x Buddhism

There is no authority record match for this full string, so a URI will not be added IF the library chooses to add them for full access points only.  The library will get this matching authority record:

$a Personality disorders $x Religious aspects       sh2019101837

Whether a library chooses to follow the current PCC guidelines for $0 enrichment or not, we have an option that is best for your library.

Please feel free to contact us with any questions at [email protected], or if you wish to adjust your profile options.

Written by Candy Riley
Manager of Metadata Services

More about FAST headings

Written by Joan on June 2, 2020. Posted in Blog

June 2, 2020

MARCIVE has offered FAST Heading processing for many years.   FAST Headings processed by MARCIVE can be in the form of 600 (personal name), 610 (corporate name), 611 (meeting name), 630 (uniform title), 650 (topical term), 651 (geographic name), and 655 (genre/form term). To be properly identified as FAST within the record, FAST Headings require a second indicator “7” with subfield “2 fast”.  MARCIVE verifies the field against the FAST authority record file, updates as needed, and supplies the matching authority record upon request.

Examples of FAST Processing:

BEFORE:           651  7 $aUnited States, West.$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01243255

Corrected word orientation

AFTER:              651  7 $aWest United States.$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01243255

BEFORE            655  7 $aBiography.$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01423686

Updated from deleted to current form

AFTER:              655  7 $aBiographies.$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01919896

The 647 _7 $2fast field for Named Events is being seen in more and more records lately.  Now MARCIVE includes the 647 tag in FAST processing, which sometimes consists of the retagging of the 611 field to the 647 (Subject Added Entry for Named Events) field based on the 147 OCLC FAST authority records for  events.  So, we not only verify existing 647 tags, we also correctly flip 611 7 $2fast to 647 when appropriate! This added programming is part of every customer’s specifications that have asked for FAST processing.   No action needed!

Examples of Updating Named Events in FAST Processing:

BEFORE:               611 27 $aHurricane Rita (2005)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01755320

AFTER:                  647  7 $aHurricane Rita$d(2005)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01755320

BEFORE:               611 27 $aVietnam War (1961-1975)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01431664

AFTER:                  647  7 $aVietnam War$d(1961-1975)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01431664

BEFORE:               611 27 $aOperation Rolling Thunder (1965-1968)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01755778

AFTER                   647  7 $aOperation Rolling Thunder$d(1965-1968)$2fast$0(OCoLC)fst01755778

Please feel free to contact us about FAST processing, or any other aspect of authorities processing at [email protected].

Written by Ligia Gomez, MLS

New Webpage-Based File Transfers

Written by Joan on April 20, 2020. Posted in General

April 20, 2020

MARCIVE listened to customers and is providing a new, easier way to send and receive record files as an alternative to FTP.  We have created a secure website to easily drag and drop records for processing.  A link is provided for picking up the files when ready.  This website applies to customers for authorities processing, government documents cataloging services, and MARC record enrichment.   The link is provided automatically to all new customers.  Current customers with questions can contact us at [email protected] or by emailing their technical contact.

 

New! Creation of FAST access points

Written by Joan on February 7, 2019. Posted in Blog

February 7, 2019

Two years ago, we added the FAST (Faceted Application of Subject Terminology) vocabulary to the list of vocabularies we process in authorities processing.    This means that as a profile option, we can automatically review and provide maintenance on them.

For more information on FAST access point options, go here.

At the request of a customer, we now have the option to create FAST access points based on LC subject access points.  This happens only when the associated LC access point has been validated, flipped, or split, and the link between the LC term and the FAST term has been established and verified.  This processing is based on the presence of the LC authority record control number in the 7XX field of the FAST authority record, meaning that FAST has stated that these are the same.  Matching authority records will automatically be supplied, unless the library has indicated that they are not needed.  There is no additional charge for this processing.

Example:

LC access point:                       650 _0 $aRivers.  (matched to LC authority record sh 85114250)

FAST access point supplied: 650 _7 $aRivers. $fast OR

650_7 $aRivers. $fast $0fst01098312

(Subfield 0 added if the library has chosen URI additions as a part of the processing).

The access point was generated based on the presence of:

750 _0$aRivers $0(DLC)sh 85114250 in the FAST authority record.

Note to Comprehensive Notification Service (CNS) subscribers:  You can ask that this processing be added with your next update at no additional charge.  Yet another reason why CNS is a great deal!  We can re-process your bibliographic database at the frequency chosen with this new option.

For more information, contact us at [email protected]

Written by Joan Chapa, MLS

MARCIVE Now has More Than 20 Subscribers to Comprehensive Notification Service (CNS)

Written by Joan on October 31, 2018. Posted in Blog

November 1, 2018

In February 2017, MARCIVE released a new product that helps libraries keep a better handle on how authorities processing is performed in their ILS or LSP.  Over the years, customers had commented how once an initial backfile authorities processing project was completed and Standard Notification Service was begun, their systems didn’t always do a good job using the monthly updated authority records to revise the associated bibliographic records.  It was difficult to pinpoint why and in what cases an access point would not be updated, even though the proper information was present in the revised authority record.

Comprehensive Notification Service retains the bibliographic as well as the authority records, and periodically refreshes them using the newest authorities files on either a quarterly, biannual, or yearly frequency.  Only the bib records that reflect a change are provided, along with new/changed/deleted authority records.

Access points that were previously unmatched are updated when matched to new authority records through CNS.  Any new fields reflected by new policies in RDA, and continual improvements to MARCIVE processing are also seen.

The number of records changed is typically less than 5%, but different factors can affect the statistics:

–A change to a prolific access point is released by LC, so many records are affected.

–Changes in a profile option.  For example: A library that didn’t ask for processing of FAST access points at the onset and later requests it will see a large increase of changed records.  Or a library that decided to have URI identifiers added to their processing asked us to add that free option with the next update.

Subscribers can send in both bib and authority deletes before the next processing to keep the history files current.

If a library decides they don’t want to track deletes because they weed a great deal, or don’t have the staff to keep up can send their entire database to replace the current history and use that as the input file.

Although CNS was created with Ex Libris Alma members in mind, there are 10 different systems among customers of public, military, and academic libraries of various sizes.  Both public and academic consortia are represented as well.

For more information, please go to https://home.marcive.com/blog/new-comprehensive-notification-services-cns

 

Copying & Pasting Can Cause Havoc in MARC Records

Written by Joan on September 17, 2018. Posted in Blog, General

September 17, 2018

Recently we have received records from libraries containing fields with data that contains incompatible character encodings.  The majority of these fields appear to be summaries, annotations, or tables of contents that may have been copied from websites like Google Books or Amazon.com and pasted into the bibliographic record.

Some of the data used on websites in summaries or tables of contents contains character encodings that are not compatible with a MARC bibliographic record.  Additionally, MARC-8 characters are never appropriate on a web page, so any special MARC-8 data is always incompatible with web data.  Then, when all of the different Web encodings (UNICODE/UCS, UTF-8, UTF-32, Windows 1252, etc.) are added to MARC data, it becomes a conglomeration of many different character sets that is often incompatible with library systems.  We have seen situations in which the special character that appeared as a quotation on a website was represented as a field terminator in the data received by MARCIVE, which makes the record more challenging to process.

Another issue is when a very long summary or table of contents is pasted into a 520 or 505 tag in a MARC record.  There is a size limit for individual fields in a MARC record (9999 bytes), as well as a size limit for the entire MARC record (99999 bytes).  Sometimes these summaries and tables of contents exceed the limits, either for a field or for the entire record.

A few examples of issues with this type of data:

⇒Quotations:  Appears on website   …chance for a “real job”….

The quotations are interpreted by the local system or text editor as something different, and they are incorrect when exported from the library’s system, therefore incorrect when received by MARCIVE. They can appear as question marks or other representations, depending on the editor or function used to view or process the records and how it handles characters that are not valid for bibliographic records.

⇒Apostrophe:  Appears on website   …Jacob’s opinion…..

The apostrophe is interpreted by the local system or text editor as something different, and the data is received by MARCIVE with incompatible coding.

⇒Special characters – non-English:   Appears on website “sueño” and received by MARCIVE as “suñeo”

Depending on how the data is used or displayed, this may appear as “sue?no” or “suñeo” or some other form.  The code for ñ is not being interpreted correctly; it is not the correct code for this special character in MARC records

While we are happy to resolve these problems, sometimes it is not always apparent to the end user where the problems with diacritics and other special characters originated.  Therefore it is good to be aware of the issues that arise from cutting text from websites and pasting it into a MARC record.

The best way to include summaries and Tables of Contents in your data is to have it added by a vendor like MARCIVE that has put procedures in place to make the data compatible with MARC records, or within your system by entering the data using the tools for cataloging bibliographic data or a MARC editor tool.

Written by Carol Love, Programmer/Analyst and Joan Chapa, MLS

 

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latestNews_button

MARCIVE will be closed Dec. 23, 26, 30 and Jan. 2 for the winter holidays.

MARCIVE Enhances the U.S. Catalog of Government Publications
See the announcement from GPO's FDLP News & Events 

Illegal aliens: Part 2

New Year.  New Priorities.

LC changed the "Illegal alien" subject heading, among others.  Now what?

Go paperless!  In the coming year, we will no longer mail paper invoices.  Contact us with the email you want us to use for electronic invoicing.

15 new libraries to be added to the Cataloging Record Distribution Program for FREE cataloging

Need solutions for dealing with headings such as "Illegal Aliens"?  Learn how we assisted one customer.

Presentation on how our Comprehensive Notification Service can work in SirsiDynix Symphony.

New! QLSP Spanish language subject heading verification

New URI Enrichment Option

MARCIVE's Authorities Processing and RDA Conversion Services received Platinum distinction in the 2021 MLA Awards. Learn more.

Interested in learning more about outsourced authority control in the Ex Libris Alma system?  See our recent webinar from a current customer.

More about FAST headings

Alternative to FTP?  Yes!

On-Demand Webinar: Making eRecords More Findable

Need to send out an RFP for data remediation and authorities processing?  See our newly revised template.

Not able to do backfile authorities processing just now?  Explore your options.

New!  FAST access point creation

New!  Updated version of MarciveWeb SELECT released

Copying & pasting can cause havoc in MARC records

MARCIVE provides metadata conversion for catalog visibility

Looking for a new authorities vendor?  Contact us to learn about your various options.

MARCIVE Services for ExLibris Libraries : Consortium or Standalone

NEW!  Option for 34X fields creation during RDA conversion

MARCIVE Participates in GPO Webinar

Success story for LeRoy Collins Leon County

Added Benefits of Comprehensive Notification (CNS)

FAST Headings Now Examined

Lexile Beginning Reader Measures More Granular

Comprehensive Notification Service

Webinar to Help Complete the CRDP Profile

Options for Genre Terms

Check out our BLOG!

Why do RDA Conversion?

Check out revised sample RFP for authorities processing  here

MARCIVE provides RDA conversion for diverse libraries

Considering a backfile authorities processing project?
Check out our Backfile Authorities FAQ